Classes of Conjunctions (Conjunction 2)
Happy New Year to all of you. Hope this year brings prosperity to all of you. With that note, let’s start this new chapter in this new year with further knowledge on Conjunctions. In our previous chapter, we learnt Conjunctions and their types along with a few correlatives. Today, we will go deep into Conjunctions and see the classes of it and a few other uses. So, let’s begin.
Conjunctions are of two classes - Co-ordinating Conjunctions and Sub-ordinating conjunctions. We have already known the first one. In simple terms, when two clauses of the same rank (i.e. those two clauses can stand individually on their own without being joined by any conjunctions) are added by conjunction words (such as and, or, but), it’s called Co-ordinating conjunctions. See the examples →
- I went to school and she went to college.
- I bought sugar but forgot to buy milk.
- Work on the maths problems or study English.
Note1: Each of the above sentences are joined by a conjunction. However, the clauses in each sentence are independent. Hence, they are of equal rank.
So, we’ve understood the the Co-ordinating Conjunction. Now, let’s move to another class of Conjunctions – Sub-ordinating Conjunctions.
A Sub-ordinating Conjunction introduces the dependent clause (sub-ordinate clause) present in a sentence. See the example below →
I cannot come to play today because I am suffering from fever.
The above sentence has two clauses. They are →
(I) I cannot come to play today (II) I am suffering from fever.
Now, the second clause (I am suffering from fever) is dependent on the first sentence (I cannot come to play today). The latter clause is called Main or Principal Clause and the former is known as Sub-ordinating or Dependent Clause.
Now, you can see that the sub-ordinating clause (I am suffering from fever) is joined with a conjunction BECAUSE to the main clause (I cannot come to play today). Such conjunctions which introduce sub-ordinating clauses are better called Sub-ordinating Conjunctions. Below are the vastly used sub-ordinating conjunctions.
Because, as, since, though, although, till, until, unless, when, where, while, after, if, whether, that, before,
Check out the examples with the use of sub-ordinating clauses:
- I cannot stand properly since I went through a knee replacement surgery recently.
- I won’t go to school if it rains.
- As you were absent yesterday, the project went to Mr. Brandon.
- Tell the correct answer before you leave for the day.
- Although he is a good professor, he could not answer this simple question.
- After it stops raining, I will head towards my office.
- I will not let you go unless you tell me the truth.
- Wait for me until I come back.
- I am not sure when he will finish his dinner.
All the above sentences are joined by a sub-ordinating conjunction (marked bold italilcs). If you follow closely, you can see that the sub-ordinating conjunctions introduce the main clause and without them the sentences won’t be complete.
Conjunctions – both co-ordinating and sub-ordinating do the same job. They add sentences. So, remember this fundamental concept of every conjunction. Now, let’s read the following. It’s interesting.
Conjunctions used both as prepositions and conjunctions
There are a few conjunctions which are used as prepositions too. Have a look at the below classifications.
|♦ I will wait for you till 9 PM||♦ Wait for me till I come back|
|♦ Please postpone the project until Monday||♦ Until the project manager comes, we can’t decide.|
|♦ Since 1981 we’ve been living here.||♦ Since you’ve finished this, I will let you go.|
|♦ He’s been ill since Monday.||♦ I’ll agree since you want this.|
|♦ She’ll be back before Wednesday.||♦ Meet me before you leave the office.|
|♦ Don’t stand before me.||♦ Do think again before you resign the job.|
|♦ Meet me after 5 PM.||♦ I will work after you leave.|
|♦ Do not always run after money.||♦ It rained very heavily after you had left.|
|♦ Everyone left but John.||♦ Everyone left but John is still here.|
|♦ You can’t win matches but my help.||♦ He is very rich but does not have a big heart.|
Note2: BUT means/acts as EXCEPT as preposition.
|♦ He has been studying for 30 minutes.||♦ I can’t issue a card for the rules don’t permit me.|
|♦ Were you looking for me?||♦ I helped him for he is my class mate.|
Note3: FOR means/acts as BECAUSE as a conjunction.
We are done with this chapter of Conjunctions. For more elaboration, we shall come back to it with more examples in our subsequent chapters. We’ve discussed two different classes of conjunctions and have learnt a few words used both as prepositions and conjunctions. Hope this helps you understand conjunctions in an elaborate way. Do let me me know if I’ve missed out anything here or if I need to add anything more here. Your feedback will be highly appreciative.